Subtraction using 10’s complement

In digital computer systems, arithmetic operations are simplified using the radix complement system also known as r’s complement system. The r stands for radix which is a base for a number in a particular number system. In this post, you learn to do subtraction using 10’s complement. You must be familiar with the complement system … Read more

Sequential Circuits – Flip Flop Circuits

Sequential Circuits have a memory element in addition to a combinational circuit so it remembers one bit of information. If a sequential circuit uses a clock pulse, then it is called “Clocked Sequential Circuit”. There are two types of Sequential Circuits, Synchronous Sequential Circuits Asynchronous Sequential Circuits In synchronous sequential circuits the memory or the … Read more


The adder is a combinational circuit that add binary digits for arithmetic computation. A combinational circuit is a kind of digital circuit that has an input, a logic circuit and an output. For variables, there are combinations of input variables and for each input combination, there is one and only one output. Therefore, output from … Read more

Combinational Circuit – Questions/Solutions

In this post, you will learn example problems from combinational circuits. These problems help in minimizing Boolean functions and constructing logic circuit diagrams. The solution to the problems are given in step-by-step manner with explanation wherever possible. Q1. Simplify the Boolean function using K-MAP technique. There are 4 variables in this function. First, we construct … Read more

Complement of a Boolean Function

The function is F and it’s complement is F’. Suppose there is a function as follows F = x’ y  z’ + x’ y’ z We can find the complement of the function using two rule stated by DeMorgan’s Law. Now, we will apply the above two principle in F to obtain F’. F’= (x’ … Read more

Universal Gates

In computer science, logic gates such as NAND gates are very useful. You can use NAND gate as universal gate. They can be helpful in designing any complex logic circuit its implementation using NAND gates only. In this post you learn to use NAND as universal gate to create a logic diagram of a digital … Read more

Subtraction of signed binary numbers using 2’s Complement

In this article, we will perform a subtraction using 2’s complement. An unsigned binary number does not have a sign bit in the most significant bit (MSB) position. For example, consider 8-bit representation of 3810 Now, if we take two’s complement of unsigned binary number then we get signed binary representation of a number which … Read more

4-Variable K-Map

Previous post, you learned about 3-variable K-map, and learned how to minimize a boolean function. In this post, you will learn about bigger map such as a 4-variable K-map. With 4-variable map you will be able to make larger groups of cells. Plotting a 4-variable K-map The 4 variables of a Boolean function will give … Read more

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