C programming language has logical operators for logical expressions. The output of a logical operation is a Boolean value – true or false.

In a logical expression, you have one or more operands and each has a truth value, depending on the truth value of each operand the logical operator decides the final truth value of the logical expression.

## Logical Operators

A list of logical operators in C language is given below. The minimum numbers of operands required by each of the operators are also given in the same table.

- AND (&&)
- OR (||)
- NOT (!)

We shall discuss each of them in more detail now.

## AND (&&) operator

The AND operation is denoted by two ‘ampersand’ symbol. To understand the AND operation, consider the following expression,

```
A && B
Where A = (3 < 4) and B = (10 < 20)
```

The final output of the expression depends on the following conditions.

A is **true** && B is **true** = A && B is **true**

A is **false** && B is **true** = A && B is **false**.

A is **true** && B is **false** = A && B is **false**.

A is **false** && B is **false** = A && B is **false**.

So, the AND is only **true** when both A and B are **true**.

## OR (||) operator

The OR operation is also useful logical operator in the C language. The value of the expression is true under the following conditions.

A is **true** || B is **true** = A || B is **true**

A is **false** || B is **true** = A || B is **true**

A is **true** || B is **false** = A || B is **true**

A is **false** || B is **false** = A || B is **false**

From the above example, it is clear that the OR is only **true** when at least A or B is **true**.

## NOT (!) operator

The NOT is called the **negation** operation. It negates the truth value of the existing expression.

For example,

if A is true, then ! A is **false**

If A is **false**, then ! A is **true**.

Note:- The *!(!A) == A.*

## Example – AND, OR, NOT

```
/* C Program to demonstrate use of Logical Operators */
#include <stdio.h>
int main() {
int A, B ;
A = (5 < 10); /* True */
B = (10 < 20); /* True */
printf("\n\n\n\n\n");
/* Working of AND operation - both A and B must be true */
if(A && B) {
printf("\tOutput AND - both A and B are true\n\n");
}
/* Operation of Not operator */
A = (2 < 10); /* False */
B = (4 < 8); /* True */
/* A && B is False */
if(!(A && B)) {
printf("\tOutput NOT - (A && B) is False so negation !(A && B) is True\n\n");
}
/* Working of OR operator - any one of A or B must be true */
if (A || B) {
printf("\tOutput OR - Any one of A or B is true\n\n");
}
getch();
return 0;
}
```

## Output – AND, OR, NOT

### References

- Balagurusamy, E. 2000.
*Programming in ANSI C.*Tata McGraw-Hill Education, - Brian W. Kernighan, Dennis M. Ritchie. 1988.
*C Programming Language, 2nd Edition.*Prentice Hall. - Kanetkar, Yashavant. 20 November 2002.
*Let us C.*Bpb Publications.