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C Program To Manipulate Matrices

The C program for matrix manipulation performs basic matrix operations upon receiving the values for two matrices from the user. The program does addition, subtraction, multiplication, and transpose of a matrix.

We wrote the program using Dev-C++ version 4 compiler installed on Windows 7 64-bit. You can work with other standard C compilers after modifying the source code of the program. This is necessary to compile an error-free program.

You must be familiar with the concepts of a matrix and its operations to understand this example. See the problem definition section for a brief introduction to these concepts. Also, learn following C programming concepts before you practice this example.

Problem Definition

Suppose you are given two matrices, then you can perform following simple operations on them.

  1. Addition
  2. Subtraction
  3. Multiplication
  4. Transpose

The program uses only square matrices for all its operations. For example, if A and B are two matrices then,

A = \hspace{1cm} \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 3\\ 1 & 1 & 4\\ 2 & 3 & 5 \end{bmatrix} // A Matrix

B = \hspace{1cm} \begin{bmatrix} 3 & 1 & 3\\ 2 & 1 & 1\\ 3 & 6 & 3 \end{bmatrix} //B Matrix

A^T = \hspace{.8cm} \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 1 & 2\\ 2 & 1 & 3\\ 3 & 4 & 5 \end{bmatrix} // Transpose of A Matrix

A + B = \hspace{0.3cm} \begin{bmatrix} 4 & 3 & 6\\ 3 & 2 & 5\\ 5 & 9 & 8 \end{bmatrix} // Addition of A and B matrix

A - B = \hspace{0.3cm} \begin{bmatrix} -2 & 1 & 0\\ -1 & 0 & 3\\ -1 & -3 & 2 \end{bmatrix} //Subtraction of A and B matrix

A * B = \hspace{0.3cm} \begin{bmatrix} -2 & 1 & 0\\ -1 & 0 & 3\\ -1 & -3 & 2 \end{bmatrix} // Multiplication of A and B matrix

More about the operations ..

  1. In multiplication of two matrices A and B, the row in A multiply all elements in column in B and the result is added to get each element of the output matrix. You do this for all rows and columns.
  2. In transpose of matrix, the row becomes the column and the column becomes the row, in the resultant matrix.
  3. The addition and subtraction of matrices are straight-forward operations.

Flowchart Matrix Manipulation Program

Flowchart - C Program for Matrix Manipulation
Flowchart – C Program for Matrix Manipulation

Program Code – Matrix Manipulation Program

 /* PROGRAM IN C TO MANIPULATE MATRIX */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>
#define N 10
main() 
{
    int a[10][10],b[10][10];
    int c[10][10];
    int i,j,k,n,choice;
    void read_matrix(int a[N][N],int b[N][N],int n);
    void menu(int a[N][N],int b[N][N],int c[N][N],int n);
    /* Get the Size of the Matrices */
    printf("ENTER SIZE OF MATRIX:");
    scanf("%d",&n);
    /* Read Matrices values */
    read_matrix(a,b,n);
    i=0;
    while(choice !=5) 
    {
        menu(a,b,c,n);
        i++;
    }
    system("PAUSE");
    return 0;
}

void menu(int a[N][N],int b[N][N],int c[N][N],int n) 
{
    int i,j,k,choice;
    printf("ENTER A CHOICE:\n");
    for(i=0;i<30;i++)
    printf("_");printf("\n\n");
        printf("1.ADDITION\n");
        printf("2.SUBTRACTION\n");
        printf("3.MULTIPLICATION\n");
        printf("4.TRANSPOSE\n");
        printf("5.QUIT\n")
    for(i=0;i<30;i++)
    printf("_");printf("\n\n");
    scanf("%d",&choice);
    i=0;
    switch(choice) 
    {
        case 1:
            for(i=0;i<n;i++) {
                for(j=0;j<n;j++) {
                    c[i][j] = a[i][j] + b[i][j];
                    }
            }
            /* Print Result */
            system("cls");
            printf("RESULT\n");
            for(i=0;i<n;i++) {
                for(j=0;j<n;j++) {
                    printf("%d\t",c[i][j]);
                }
            printf("n");
            }
            for(i=0;i<30;i++)
            printf("*");
            printf("\n\n");
            break;
        case 2:
            for(i=0;i<n;i++) {
                for(j=0;j<n;j++) {
                    c[i][j] = a[i][j] - b[i][j];
                }
            }
            /* Print Result */
            system("cls");
            printf("RESULT\n");
            for(i=0;i<n;i++) {
                for(j=0;j<n;j++) {
                    printf("%d\t",c[i][j]);
                }
            printf("\n");
            }
            for(i=0;i<30;i++)
            printf("_");printf("\n\n");
            break;
        case 3:
            for(i=0;i<n;i++) {
                for( j=0;j<n;j++) {
                    for( k=0;k<n;k++) {
                    c[i][j] = c[i][j] + a[i][k] * b[k][j];
                    }                 
                }
            }
            /* Print the result */
            system("cls");
            printf("Result\n");
            for( i=0;i<n;i++) {
                for(j=0;j<n;j++) {
                    printf("%d\t",c[i][j]);
                }
            printf("\n");
            }
            for(i=0;i<30;i++)
            printf("_");printf("\n\n");
            break;
            /* Transpose Matrix -A */
        case 4:
            for(i=0;i<n;i++) {
                for(j=0;j<n;j++) {
                    c[i][j] = a[j][i];
                }
            }
            /* Print Result */
            system("cls");
            printf("*RESULT*\n");
            for(i=0;i<n;i++) {
                for(j=0;j<n;j++) {
                    printf("%d\t",c[i][j]);
                }
            printf("\n");
            }
            for(i=0;i<30;i++)
            printf("_");printf("\n\n");
            break;
        default: exit(0);
        }
    }
/* Read Matrix a and b*/
void read_matrix(int a[N][N],int b[N][N],int n) {
    int i,j;
    printf("READ MATRIX A:\n\n");
    printf("ENTER MATRIX VALUES ROW WISE:\n\n");
    for(i=0;i<n;i++) {
        for(j=0;j<n;j++) {
            scanf("%d",&a[i][j]);
        }
    }

    /* Print Matrix A */
    printf("*Matrix-A*\n");
    for(i=0;i<n;i++) {
        for(j=0;j<n;j++) {
            printf("%d\t",a[i][j]);
        }
    printf("\n");
    }
    for(i=0;i<30;i++)
    printf("*");printf("\n\n");
    /* READ MATRIX B */
    printf("READ MATRIX B:\n\n");
    printf("ENTER MATRIX VALUES ROW WISE:\n\n");
    for(i=0;i<n;i++) {
        for(j=0;j<n;j++) {
            scanf("%d",&b[i][j]);
        }
    }

    /*Print Matrix-B */
    printf("*Matrix-B*\n");
    for(i=0;i<n;i++) {
        for(j=0;j<n;j++) {
            printf("%d\t",b[i][j]);
            }
    printf("\n");
    }
    for(i=0;i<30;i++)
    printf("*");printf("\n\n");
}

Output

ENTER SIZE OF MATRIX:2
READ MATRIX A:

ENTER MATRIX VALUES ROWWISE:
1 2
4 2
*MATRIX-A*
1    2
4    2
********************************

READ MATRIX B:

ENTER MATRIX VALUES ROWWISE:
1 4
1 1
*MATRIX-B*
1    4
1    1
*****************************
ENTER A CHOICE:
___________________________
1.ADDITION
2.SUBTRACTION
3.MULTIPLICATION
4.TRANSPOSE
5.QUIT
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