Arithmetic operators carry basic arithmetic operations in a C++ program. These operators are used in simple mathematical expressions. They are also known as binary operators because each operator requires at least two operands.

Here is a list of arithmetic operators.

Arithmetic Operators | Description |

+ | Addition |

– | Subtraction |

* | Multiplication |

/ | Division |

% | Modulo |

The operators plus , minus , and multiplication need two numbers to produce results. Similarly, the divide operator requires two number – and . The result of the division is a quotient. The last arithmetic operator is modulo which gives the remainder of a division of two integer numbers (not allowed for float or double types).

If one of the numbers is a floating point number and another integer for any arithmetic operator in C++ will result in a floating point value.

\begin{aligned}&integer + integer = integer\\ \\&float + integer = float\\ \\&integer + float = float\\ \\&float + float = float\end{aligned}

For example, the following program is a working example of the above rules.

### Program Code:

```
#include <cstdlib>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
// variable declaration
int a, b, result1;
float e,d, result2, result3, result4;
// Variable initialization
a = 20;
b = 30;
d = 25.5;
e = 20.3;
result1 = 0;
result2 = result3 = result4 = 0.0;
// Arithmetic Expressions
result1 = a + b;
cout << "a + b =" << result1 << endl;
result2 = a + d;
cout << "a + d =" << result2 << endl;
result3 = e + b;
cout << "e + b =" << result3 << endl;
result4 = d + e;
cout << "d + e =" << result4 << endl;
system("PAUSE");
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}
```

## Output:

```
a + b = 50
a + d = 45.5
e + b = 50.3
d + e = 45.8
```

## Arithmetic Expressions

The operands and the C++ operators make an expression that evaluates to a single value. An expression can be a simple one with two numbers and a single operator or it can be a complex expression involving many numbers and operators.

From the above example,

\begin{aligned} &e + b \hspace{3px} evaluates \hspace{3px} to \hspace{3px} 50.3\\\\ &d + e \hspace{3px} evaluates \hspace{3px} to \hspace{3px} 45.8 \end{aligned}

But, within the C++ program, an expression is written as

\begin{aligned} &result3 = e + b\\ \\ &result4 = d + e \end{aligned}

In a complex expression, the terms are evaluated based on the operator precedence. The expression with higher precedence operator is executed first and then the expression with lower precedence operator.

res = 2 + 4 * ( 1 + 5)

In the above example,

The parentheses has the highest precedence so is evaluated first.

The multiplication has second highest priority so is evaluated second.

The plus is evaluated last.

\begin{aligned} &= 2 + 4 * 6\\ \\ &= 2 + 24\\ \\ &= 26 \end{aligned}

## Example Program: Arithmetic Operators

```
#include <cstdlib>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
// Variable Declarations
int number1, number2, result1;
float number3, number4, result2;
// Variable Initialization
number1 = 100;
number2 = 74;
result1 = 0;
number3 = 24.65;
number4 = 12.5;
result2 = 0.0;
//Arithmetic Expressions
result1 = number1 + number2;
result2 = number3 + number4;
cout << "Integer Addition =" << result1 << endl;
cout << "Float Addition =" << result2 << endl;
result1 = number1 - number2;
result2 = number3 - number4;
cout << "Integer Subtraction =" << result1 << endl;
cout << "Float Subtraction = " << result2 << endl;
result1 = number1 * number2;
result2 = number3 * number4;
cout << "Integer Multiplication =" << result1 << endl;
cout << "Float Multiplication = " << result2 << endl;
result1 = number1 / number2;
result2 = number3 / number4;
cout << "Integer Division =" << result1 << endl;
cout << "Float Division = " << result2 << endl;
result1 = number1 % number2;
cout << "Integer Modulo Operation =" << result1 << endl;
system("PAUSE");
return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}
```

## Output:

The output of the above program is as follows.

```
Integer Addition =174
Float Addition =37.15
Integer Subtraction =26
Float Subtraction = 12.15
Integer Multiplication =7400
Float Multiplication = 308.125
Integer Division =1
Float Division = 1.972
Integer Modulo Operation =26
```