Arithmetic operators carry basic arithmetic operations in a C++ program. These operators are used in simple mathematical expressions. They are also known as binary operators because each operator requires at least two operands.

Here is a list of arithmetic operators.

Arithmetic Operators | Description |

+ | Addition |

– | Subtraction |

* | Multiplication |

/ | Division |

% | Modulo |

The operators plus , minus , and multiplication need two numbers to produce results. Similarly, the divide operator requires two number – and . The result of the division is a quotient. The last arithmetic operator is modulo which gives the remainder of a division of two integer numbers (not allowed for float or double types).

If one of the numbers is a floating point number and another integer for any arithmetic operator in C++ will result in a floating point value.

\begin{aligned}&integer + integer = integer\\ \\&float + integer = float\\ \\&integer + float = float\\ \\&float + float = float\end{aligned}

For example, the following program is a working example of the above rules.

Contents

### Program Code:

#include <cstdlib> #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { // variable declaration int a, b, result1; float e,d, result2, result3, result4; // Variable initialization a = 20; b = 30; d = 25.5; e = 20.3; result1 = 0; result2 = result3 = result4 = 0.0; // Arithmetic Expressions result1 = a + b; cout << "a + b =" << result1 << endl; result2 = a + d; cout << "a + d =" << result2 << endl; result3 = e + b; cout << "e + b =" << result3 << endl; result4 = d + e; cout << "d + e =" << result4 << endl; system("PAUSE"); return EXIT_SUCCESS; }

## Output:

a + b = 50 a + d = 45.5 e + b = 50.3 d + e = 45.8

## Arithmetic Expressions

The operands and the C++ operators make an expression that evaluates to a single value. An expression can be a simple one with two numbers and a single operator or it can be a complex expression involving many numbers and operators.

From the above example,

\begin{aligned} &e + b \hspace{3px} evaluates \hspace{3px} to \hspace{3px} 50.3\\\\ &d + e \hspace{3px} evaluates \hspace{3px} to \hspace{3px} 45.8 \end{aligned}

But, within the C++ program, an expression is written as

\begin{aligned} &result3 = e + b\\ \\ &result4 = d + e \end{aligned}

In a complex expression, the terms are evaluated based on the operator precedence. The expression with higher precedence operator is executed first and then the expression with lower precedence operator.

res = 2 + 4 * ( 1 + 5)

In the above example,

The parentheses has the highest precedence so is evaluated first.

The multiplication has second highest priority so is evaluated second.

The plus is evaluated last.

\begin{aligned} &= 2 + 4 * 6\\ \\ &= 2 + 24\\ \\ &= 26 \end{aligned}

## Example Program: Arithmetic Operators

#include <cstdlib> #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { // Variable Declarations int number1, number2, result1; float number3, number4, result2; // Variable Initialization number1 = 100; number2 = 74; result1 = 0; number3 = 24.65; number4 = 12.5; result2 = 0.0; //Arithmetic Expressions result1 = number1 + number2; result2 = number3 + number4; cout << "Integer Addition =" << result1 << endl; cout << "Float Addition =" << result2 << endl; result1 = number1 - number2; result2 = number3 - number4; cout << "Integer Subtraction =" << result1 << endl; cout << "Float Subtraction = " << result2 << endl; result1 = number1 * number2; result2 = number3 * number4; cout << "Integer Multiplication =" << result1 << endl; cout << "Float Multiplication = " << result2 << endl; result1 = number1 / number2; result2 = number3 / number4; cout << "Integer Division =" << result1 << endl; cout << "Float Division = " << result2 << endl; result1 = number1 % number2; cout << "Integer Modulo Operation =" << result1 << endl; system("PAUSE"); return EXIT_SUCCESS; }

## Output:

The output of the above program is as follows.

Integer Addition =174 Float Addition =37.15 Integer Subtraction =26 Float Subtraction = 12.15 Integer Multiplication =7400 Float Multiplication = 308.125 Integer Division =1 Float Division = 1.972 Integer Modulo Operation =26

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