C++ Arithmetic Operators

Advertisements
Advertisements

Arithmetic operators carry basic arithmetic operations in a C++ program. These operators are used in simple mathematical expressions. They are also known as binary operators because each operator requires at least two operands.

Here is a list of arithmetic operators.

Arithmetic OperatorsDescription
+Addition
Subtraction
*Multiplication
/Division
%Modulo

The operators plus (+), minus (-), and multiplication (\ast) need two numbers to produce results. Similarly, the divide operator requires two number – a \hspace{3px} numerator and a \hspace{3px} denominator. The result of the division is a quotient. The last arithmetic operator is modulo (\%) which gives the remainder of a division of two integer numbers (not allowed for float or double types).

If one of the numbers is a floating point number and another integer for any arithmetic operator in C++ will result in a floating point value.

\begin{aligned}&integer + integer = integer\\ \\&float + integer = float\\ \\&integer + float = float\\ \\&float + float = float\end{aligned}

For example, the following program is a working example of the above rules.

Advertisements

Program Code:

#include <cstdlib>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{ 
    // variable declaration
    
    int a, b, result1;
    float e,d, result2, result3, result4;
    
    // Variable initialization
    
    a = 20;
    b = 30;
    
    d = 25.5;
    e = 20.3;
    
    result1 = 0;
    result2 = result3 = result4 = 0.0;
    
    // Arithmetic Expressions
    
    result1 = a + b;
    cout << "a + b =" << result1 << endl;
    
    result2 = a + d;
    cout << "a + d =" << result2 << endl;
    
    result3 = e + b;
    cout << "e + b =" << result3 << endl;
    
    result4 = d + e;
    cout << "d + e =" << result4 << endl;
    
    system("PAUSE");
    return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}

Output:

a + b = 50
a + d = 45.5
e + b = 50.3
d + e = 45.8

Arithmetic Expressions

The operands and the C++ operators make an expression that evaluates to a single value. An expression can be a simple one with two numbers and a single operator or it can be a complex expression involving many numbers and operators.

From the above example,

\begin{aligned}
&e + b \hspace{3px}  evaluates \hspace{3px}  to \hspace{3px}  50.3\\\\
&d + e \hspace{3px} evaluates \hspace{3px} to \hspace{3px} 45.8
\end{aligned}

But, within the C++ program, an expression is written as

\begin{aligned}
&result3 = e + b\\ \\
&result4 = d + e
\end{aligned}

In a complex expression, the terms are evaluated based on the operator precedence. The expression with higher precedence operator is executed first and then the expression with lower precedence operator.

res = 2 + 4 * ( 1 + 5)

In the above example,

The parentheses ( ) has the highest precedence so ( 1 + 5 ) is evaluated first.

The multiplication * has second highest priority so 4 * ( 1 + 5) is evaluated second.

The plus + is evaluated last.

\begin{aligned}
&= 2 + 4 * 6\\ \\
&= 2 + 24\\ \\
&= 26
\end{aligned}

Example Program: Arithmetic Operators

#include <cstdlib>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
    // Variable Declarations
    
    int number1, number2, result1;
    float number3, number4, result2;
    
    // Variable Initialization
    
    number1 = 100;
    number2 = 74;
    result1 = 0;
    
    number3 = 24.65;
    number4 = 12.5;
    result2 = 0.0;
    
    //Arithmetic Expressions
    
    result1 = number1 + number2;
    result2 = number3 + number4;
    cout << "Integer Addition =" << result1 << endl;
    cout << "Float Addition =" << result2 << endl;
    
    result1 = number1 - number2;
    result2 = number3 - number4;
    cout << "Integer Subtraction =" << result1 << endl;
    cout << "Float Subtraction = " << result2 << endl;
    
    result1 = number1 * number2;
    result2 = number3 * number4;
    cout << "Integer Multiplication =" << result1 << endl;
    cout << "Float Multiplication = " << result2 << endl;
    
    result1 = number1 / number2;
    result2 = number3 / number4;
    cout << "Integer Division =" << result1 << endl;
    cout << "Float Division = " << result2 << endl;
    
    result1 = number1 % number2;
    cout << "Integer Modulo Operation =" << result1 << endl;
   
    
    system("PAUSE");
    return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}

Output:

The output of the above program is as follows.

Integer Addition =174
Float Addition =37.15
Integer Subtraction =26
Float Subtraction = 12.15
Integer Multiplication =7400
Float Multiplication = 308.125
Integer Division =1
Float Division = 1.972
Integer Modulo Operation =26

Bestseller

Let Us C++

One of the best selling book in C++ programming language. A perfect book for beginners and people who want to prefer self-study in step by step manner. Simple and easy narration style made this book very popular. The book assumes that you don’t have programming experience and starts with basic to more advanced topics.

Advertisements
Advertisements
Advertisements