Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model

Networking is a complex computation problem that includes several tasks. The underlying hardware cannot do all the tasks, so a software layer is required to prepare the message before hardware could send them as signals. The hardware only knows electrical signals, but there are several layers of software all of which need standardization. You will … Read more

Tracert Command in Windows

The tracert command is a built-in networking tool that finds all the hops between localhost (where you run the command) and the destination computer on the network. In this exercise, you will learn to use basic tracert command. For the purpose of the exercise, we are using a Windows 7 64-bit machine. Step 1: Open … Read more

Ping Command in Windows

A ping is a built-in tool in the Microsoft Windows operating system. You can use it to test network connectivity with a remote host or computer. If you have a windows computer try this on your own. The localhost is the same computer where you are running the ping command. We need first to check … Read more

Network Categories

Networks are made of many types of equipment and technologies, therefore, it follows two popular standards – the OSI model and Internet Model. A network fall under 3 different categories – LAN, WAN, and MAN. Before we jump into the computer models, know that computer networks fall under certain categories depending on their geographical size. … Read more

Network Topology

A topology is the physical structure of the network using different types of connection. In this article, you will learn about network topologies such as mesh, star, ring, and bus topology. A network is two or more devices connected through links where the link transfers data from one device to another. The link connects the … Read more

Computer Network Basics

Computer networks are a form of a data communication system where data refers to information in an agreeable form for parties sharing and using them. What is Data Communication? Data communication itself is an exchange of data between two devices over a medium such as a cable wire. The devices that are part of communication … Read more

Network Layer – Understanding Packet Delivery and Routing

In this lesson, you will learn about Network layer and its role in delivery, forwarding and routing in a network. You must be familiar with all the layer of OSI and TCP/IP to understand this article, because in computer networks, each layer affect each other during communication. Delivery of Packet Network layer supervises the handling … Read more

Digital Transmission

In this lesson, you will learn about various digital transmission coding scheme and understand that digital signals made it possible to encode digital information transmission. Our goal is to send digital information as digit signals. Basics Components The basic components of digital signal transmission are digital data and digital signals that are sent including the … Read more

Network Layer – Logical Addressing

In this lesson, you will learn about logical addressing scheme of networking layer, this layer deals with ipadderessing and has a class based and class addressing scheme. You will also learn concept of sub netting and super netting. IPv4 addresses An IPv4 address is bit address that uniquely and universally defines the connection of a … Read more

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