OS Swapping Processes

We have an intuitive understanding of process and process states from an earlier post now. If you want to know about process states and state transitions see link below. Process States in Operating System One of the states is the waiting state in which the process is waiting for some event or an I/O operation to … Read more

OS Process States

When a computer program runs but only a part of a program is running performing a specific task. This smallest unit of a program in execution is called a process. Technically, a process is not the smallest unit but some programs consist of threads which are smaller than a process. When there is no process … Read more

Page Table

Most OS allocate a page table for each process. A pointer to the page table is stored in the PCB of the process. When the dispatcher start a process, it must reload the user registers and define the correct hardware page table from the stored user page-table. Hardware Page Table The hardware page table can … Read more

Memory Mapping Schemes

Memory mapping is a technique to bind user-generated addresses to physical addresses in the memory. This requires static binding or dynamic binding. CPU gets instruction from memory, and then decode the instruction during the instruction-execution cycle. The instruction also contains the memory address of operands that need to be fetched. The CPU finished the instruction … Read more

Storage Structure

Files are stored on random-access storage devices including hard disks, optical disks, and solid-state disks. The storage device can entirely be used as a file system or divided into many partitions. Each partition may or may not have a different file system. Storage devices are collected into RAID sets, that provides high availability and fault … Read more

File Type

The operating system should support the file system. If the OS does not recognize a file type then any operation on the file will not be successful. The files are given an extension to indicate the type of file separated by a period or a dot. For example, finance.java – A java program source code … Read more

File Concepts

To a user, the file is the smallest unit of storage on a computer system. The user performs file operations such as open, close, read, write and modify. They can create or delete files from the system. In this article, you will learn the basics of file and file system. File Concept Computer store information … Read more


Paging allows the physical address space of a process to be non-contiguous. It avoids the external fragmentation and there is no need for compaction. Fragmentation problem affects the backing store (disk) of the main memory where processes are swapped in or out. The compaction is not possible due to the slow access speed of the … Read more

Contiguous Memory Allocation

The contiguous memory allocation uses memory partitions to allocate memory. These partitions could be fixed or variable size partitions allocated according to first fit, best fit, or wort fit method. The memory fragmentation is a common problem that affects these partition memory allocation system. Contiguous Memory Contiguous memory allocation is a method of allocating memory … Read more

Dynamic Loading And Linking

To run a process, the entire process and its data must be in physical memory. Thus, the size of a process is limited to the size of physical memory. The dynamic loading and linking are run-time operations. Dynamic Loading The dynamic binding is a method to obtain better memory-space utilization. A routine is not loaded … Read more

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